SMEs and Energy Workshop
19 Jun 2018
On June 4th over 30 energy and business experts met at Keble College to discuss the role of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the transition to a low carbon economy. The day aimed to bring researchers from the energy, policy and business studies communities together to share knowledge, identify knowledge and policy gaps, and lay a foundation for future research in the field.
Setting the context
SMEs consume more than 13% of the world’s energy, yet their relationship with energy and the environment is relatively understudied. They are also rarely the subject of government policy, dismissed for being ‘too difficult’ to reach or out of concerns for creating ‘red tape’ that may limit economic growth.
Given that the UK has committed to an 80% reduction in carbon emissions by 2050, it is important that this community is engaged with and researched in far greater detail. While SMEs are mainly understood as consumers of energy, they also play a role as innovators, and providers of services and products which influence others’ energy use.
What we know about SMEs & energy
In what would become a common theme in the discussion, several presentations highlighted the diversity which exists within SMEs in terms of size, sector and values. While a little is known about energy use of SMEs on a macro scale, more stratified knowledge is lacking. One participant commented accurately that “this is a research area defined by what we don’t know more than what we do”.
SMEs and energy efficiency
While energy efficiency is often described as a ‘free lunch’, SMEs systematically underinvest in energy efficiency. In order to understand why this is, researchers must look beyond returns on investment and more towards the attitudes, values and social norms of individuals within the businesses.
One concept introduced to the workshop participants was that investments in energy efficiency needed to be ‘salient’ with business owners to in order to be implemented. This means that they must be presented in terms of the multiple benefits which they bring about, not just for having a short payback period. While success stories are rare, the NABERS energy labelling program in Australia was mentioned as an SME oriented energy efficiency policy which has been effective at improving the efficiency of commercial buildings as well as increasing productivity and asset values.
SMEs in the retail energy market
SMEs remain mostly unengaged in the retail energy market and are less protected by regulation than domestic consumers. The SMEs who do interact with the market tend to do so through third party intermediaries, of which there are over 1300 in the UK. These brokers are currently unregulated, notwithstanding weak protections under the Misleading Marketing Regulations.
Evidence indicates that one of the CMA’s chosen remedies to increase switching, a database of unengaged SMEs to be given to intermediaries, may be unpopular with businesses, many of whom have a negative opinion of brokers. The regulator may also be missing many SMEs in their analysis as OFGEM only look at SMEs with non-domestic supply contracts, which eliminates around 50% who have domestic contracts or where a landlord deals with energy.
Policies to engage SMEs
Innovative policy measures were discussed which have the potential to increase engagement with SMEs, such as energy efficiency networks, peer to peer support, ‘scores on the doors’ for energy efficiency and greater engagement by local and
regional government. Delegates also heard about several promising policies which have the potential to be important for SMEs such as the smart meter rollout and the Non-domestic Smart Energy Management Innovation Competition run by BEIS.
Helping SMEs make better decisions
Some of the government support for SMEs is channelled through Local Enterprise Partnerships, who are now interested in not just growth but what type of growth happens in the local economy. However, there is variation in the ways in which LEPs integrate energy efficiency into their policies.
Research from the Environmental Change Institute shows that it’s hard for these organisations to engage with SMEs on energy. While calculating payback times and return on investments is important, it’s the ‘soft stuff’ that’s harder, including talking to business owners about their values and ethics. Policy should focus as much on the people in the business as the building the business occupies. Research was also presented which highlighted the value of engaging SMEs’ employees around their everyday practices and routines, instead of focusing purely on investment decisions by senior management.
Despite the diversity of SMEs and the lack of current research, attendees agreed that there are many fruitful areas for future research and collaboration. Much of the discussion focused on SME heterogeneity, which presents both challenges and opportunities. For example, many SMEs do not prioritise growth, and as such they may be a role model for the wider economy if it is to develop sustainably.
The meeting note:
- Tina Fawcett (University of Oxford and UKERC) - Introduction to the energy, research and policy landscape for SMEs
- Peter S Mallaburn (UCL) - Energy Efficiency 2.0: elements of a new policy framework
- Arina Cosac (OFGEM) - Non-domestic retail energy market
- Sam Hampton (University of Oxford, UKERC & Oxfordshire Local Enterprise Partnerships) - Local advice and support
- Nick Banks (Centre for Sustainable Energy) - SME energy management tools
Steph Gale (BEIS) - Using Smart Meter Data Analytics & Innovation to engage SMEs with energy efficiency
Related Publications (9)
This briefing paper reviews energy policy over the past 12 months, drawing on evidence from UKERC research. With a focus on the Clean Growth Strategy it covers topics including low carbon heat, the potential implications of Brexit, energy efficiency and public engagement.
This paper examines public engagement with energy in the UK. Using mapping techniques, the paper investigates instances of engagement with energy between 2010-2015.
Mapping energy participation: a systematic review of diverse practices of public participation in energy transitions 2010-1015
What does public participation in energy transitions look like at a relational 'whole systems' level?
Defining incumbency: considering the UK heat sector - Working Paper
On Clean Air Day, Christian Brand explains his latest research into the health costs of air pollution from cars and vans in the UK
New research highlights how changing the way we travel could have as big an impact on air pollution as the anticipated transport revolution and widespread adoption of electric vehicles.
New publication: Incumbency in the UK heat sector and implications for the transformation towards low-carbon heating
Network News 18 May 2018
This paper is the last of three working papers published by the Heat, Incumbency and Transformations (HIT) team. The project investigated issues surrounding the decarbonisation of heating, which is increasingly seen as a priority by energy policy makers. It considers the move towards low carbon heating from the perspective of incumbency, a topic which has received only limited focus.
Heat decarbonisation policy must acknowledge vested interests, encourage rapid low carbon heat deployment and encourage new entrants and ideas.
UKERC/University of Exeter, Imperial College London, 58 Prince's Gate, London,SW7 2PG, United Kingdom