Personal Carbon Trading (PCT)

"Personal Carbon Trading (PCT):

Bringing together the research community"

27-28 November 2008, Oxford.

A 2-day workshop to bring together research experts active in the field of personal carbon trading with the broad goal of improving coherence of the UK's research effort in this area. More specifically, the meeting aims to increase awareness of each others' work, establish a PCT research network, provide an opportunity to publish in a special issue of a journal and identify opportunities for research collaboration.

Workshop Programme


Personal Carbon Trading (PCT): Bringing together the research community - Executive Summary

Personal Carbon Trading (PCT): Bringing together the research community - Workshop Report



Speakers and their presentations

Helen Champion

Personal Carbon Trading: The Policy Context


Nick Eyre

Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University

Personal Carbon Trading
Models and language

Personal Carbon Trading
Researcher response

Nick is a Jackson Senior Research Fellow at the ECI and Oriel College and leader of the Lower Carbon Futures group.

Nick worked at the Energy Saving Trust from 1999 to 2007, initially as Head of Policy and, from 2002, as Director of Strategy. He was responsible for the Trust's work on public policy issues, business development and long term business strategy. In 2001, Nick was seconded to the Cabinet Office, Performance and Innovation Unit, where he was a co-author of the Government's Review of Energy Policy, leading the work streams on energy efficiency and long term energy scenarios. Previously Nick worked as a researcher and analyst on energy and environment issues, initially in the Energy Technology Support Unit (ETSU) and then as an independent consultant. In 1997, he wrote the first published study on how the Government's 20% carbon emission reduction target might be delivered. He was lead author of the European Commission's report used as the basis for the UK Government's estimate of the social cost of carbon. He has published extensively on energy, environment and transport issues. Nick has and MA in Physics and D.Phil in nuclear physics from the University of Oxford. He was a County Councillor in Oxfordshire from 1987 to 1993.

Fawcett Tina Fawcett  

The research Landscape

Tina is  employed within the Demand Reduction theme of the UK Energy Research Centre, and undertaking research on personal carbon allowances as well as working more broadly on UK energy demand, equity and fuel poverty. This continues the research she developed in during her doctorate (2002-2004, University College London) which concerned carbon rationing as a policy for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from UK household energy use. During this time she also co-authored a book, "How we can save the planet", which investigated the wider social, political, moral and environmental case for introducing personal carbon allowances (aka carbon rations, DTQs). During her previous spell of employment at ECI, she worked on a wide range of projects concerning household energy use, carbon emissions and waste management. Prior to working for ECI she was employed in waste management within both the public and private sector.

howell Rachel Howell

What can we learn from opinion
research and focus groups?

Rachel - ECI Oxford University working with the Lower Carbon Futures group at Oxford University's Environmental Change Institute. She is researching Carbon Rationing Action Groups, voluntary, self-organised local groups that set themselves independent carbon emissions reduction targets for their members. Rachel is examining what roles such groups play in delivering behaviour change, and how. Prior to joining ECI, Rachel gained an MSc in Environmental Sustainability from Edinburgh University, with a dissertation on public acceptability of Personal Carbon Allowances. She will be returning to Edinburgh in January to undertake doctoral research into the potential for climate change mitigation through education

Parag Dr. Yael Parag

PCT Workshop: Unpacking Social
and Political Acceptability

Yael is a senior researcher at the Lower Carbon Futures team in the Environmental Change Institute, Oxford University Centre for the Environment. In her current research she looks at Personal Carbon Trading as a policy option for carbon emissions reduction from households and personal transport. Her focus is on the policy means that have the potential to deliver behavioural change that will result in carbon emissions reduction.In her previous research she looked, among other things at the process through which Environmental public policies are shaped; the effects that actors' networks have on different stages of the policy process; trustworthiness of the state and its relations to bottled water consumption; how cellular antennas' radiation is regulated; the governance of industrial emissions to the air; national drinking water standards setting process in the context of the EU water directives; and the role that NGOs play in implementing international environmental treaties.

Matt Prescot

Exploring personal Carbon Trading

Richard Starkey

The fair allocation of rights and revenue

Joshua Thumin

Personal Carbon Trading Costs and Benefits


Participants Biographies

capstick capstick
Stuart Capstick 
has recently begun a PhD on public perspectives of climate change within the School of Psychology at Cardiff University, which will entail developing mainly qualitative techniques to track changes in 'climate risk discourses' over the past two decades. During 2007-8 he carried out his Masters at the University of Bath, researching and participating in Carbon Rationing Action Groups and a local organisation campaigning to influence people's travel choices.


chamberlin chamberlin

Shaun Chamberlin is TEQs Development Director at the Lean Economy Connection and a member of DEFRA's Personal Carbon Allowances Advisory Group. He is working with the All Party Parliamentary Group on Peak Oil and Gas to produce a joint report on TEQs, to be published early 2009.

He is heavily involved with the Transition Towns movement both locally and nationally, and am nearing completion on the Transition Timeline project, which defines the movement's position on peak oil and climate change and lays out the 'Transition vision' for the next 20 years in the UK. This covers areas as diverse as food, economics, population, energy and healthcare, all within the framework of a TEQs scheme implemented in 2011. He has also been commissioned to write an article on TEQs for Resurgence magazine, and am an active member of the Energy and Climate Working Groups of both FEASTA (Ireland) and the UK Green Party.

Flemming David Fleming's career has had varied impacts on the environment:


  • He has been an electric welder in a fuel tank factory.

  • He has made carpets.

  • He has spent millions advertising Daz, Fairy Liquid and Persil.

  • He is an award-winning industrial marketing campaign planner. He has been a consultant on the management of investment funds and edited a book on fund management in Russia.

  • He writes for Country Life and Prospect magazine.

  • He was part of the team that got the UK's Green Party off the ground.

  • He has been Chairman of the Soil Association.

  • He was one of the whistle-blowers on peak oil.

  • He is inventor of Tradable Energy Quotas (1996) – the citizen's response to climate change –published widely (e.g. Energy and the Common Purpose at www.teqs.net ). He has degrees in History (MA), Business (MBA) and Economics (MSc, PhD).

  • He is director of The Lean Economy Connection.

  • His book, Lean Logic: The Book of Environmental Manners, is out with referees. It is about lean thinking, which is what happens when people are allowed to work out for themselves how to join together to make a future.


kerr kerr
Andy Kerr
is Assistant Director of the Scottish Funding Council & Scottish Universities' £15m SAGES (Scottish Alliance for Geosciences, Environment and Society) initiative. He is currently seconded part time into the Scottish Government's Climate Change Division to help develop their Strategic Overview project, which seeks to set out the road map for Scotland to deliver its 80% emission reduction target from 1990 levels by 2050. Andy is a Director of strategic climate consultancy, E3 International. Andy has ten years involvement in climate change policy and emissions trading. In recent years, Andy has been heavily involved with the emerging carbon markets, providing strategic advice to various public and private sector clients. He has advised Government departments and other public sector organisations on the effectiveness of different policy instruments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Andy has also worked extensively with businesses affected by carbon markets, ranging from oil and gas businesses, to power stations, financial hedge funds and supermarkets. He has managed client compliance with, or traded carbon allowances and credits in, various carbon markets, including the UK and EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Kyoto markets. He has also worked on renewable energy projects, with particular expertise in biofuels. His most recent book, Climate Change and Emissions Trading, co-written with Liz Bossley, was published last year.  Prior to joining E3, Andy was Director of Environmental Trading and Markets at the fuels firm, Greenergy, and Policy Director at The Edinburgh Centre for Carbon Management Ltd, a climate change consultancy and project developer of emission reduction and sequestration projects in developing countries. He is currently based at the University of Edinburgh.

Lawrence Lawrence
Dr. Laurence Matthews
Chair of Cap & Share UK. Laurence has worked as a university lecturer and also in industry (as an industrial mathematician and economic forecaster, with experience of consultancy worldwide). Currently he is promoting Cap & Share and is particularly interested in perception and communication issues relevant to political and public acceptability of climate policies.


Deb Niemeier, is the Environment, and Editor-in-Chief of Transportation Research Part A, Policy and Practice. She is the author of more than 110 journal papers, including papers in Science, Environmental Science and Technology, Transportation Science, Energy Policy and Transportation Research, Parts A/B. She has also authored or co-authored 5 book chapters and more than 100 reports. She has served on 3 National Academy committees, and a number of scientific expert review panels including review of the Bay Bridge cost overrun, the cost analysis of the Panama Canal 3rd lock, and the Delta Risk Management Strategies study. She has received an Aldo Leopold Fellow Award, the UC Davis Chancellor's Fellow Award, and was the recipient of an NSF CAREER award.

Professor Niemeier received her Ph.D. in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the University of Washington in 1994, with a minor in statistics. She has served as Dept. Chair and is currently a member of the graduate faculty in Computer Science, Ecology, Atmospheric Science, and Geography. She has advised more than 20 Ph.D. students; in addition to those who now hold high level public administration positions, a number of her students are also faculty members (e.g., Cornell and the University of Illinois). Her current research focuses on the intersection of transportation, energy, and land use, including the effectiveness and ethical implications of policies that encourage progress toward mitigation of greenhouse gases.


strickland strickland
Deborah Strickland
works as a researcher at Oxford University's Environmental Change Institute within the Lower Carbon Future Team.  Under the umbrella of Personal Carbon Trading, she is looking specifically at how individuals will need to budget carbon in their everyday lives, and is examining a range of tools which will help make carbon more visible and easily managed.  She also works in communications for the Environmental Change Institute, has an MSc in Applied Meteorology and has worked for the Met Office


Zanni Zanni

Dr Alberto M Zanni

is a research associate in the Transport Studies Group, Department of Civil and Building Engineering at Loughborough University. Alberto is working on the RSA sponsored Carbon Limited project together with Abigail Bristow at Loughborough and Mark Wardman and Phani Kumar Chintakayala at the University of Leeds. Their research on Personal Carbon Trading focuses on two main aspects: acceptability of different scheme designs and likely behavioural adaptation in terms of personal transport and domestic energy usage. Alberto also works on freight transport carbon emissions in London and was previously at Imperial College, Centre for Environmental Policy (Wye campus), where he obtained his PhD in Economics in 2005. As an applied economist Alberto has also worked on European agricultural policies, environmental liability, regional development and environmental valuation techniques.